Emerging Technologies

Interactive (Smart) Standards/Engineering Aids
Smart Materials

Interactive (Smart) Standards/Engineering Aids

Background
   Interactive (smart) standards/engineering aids are a completely new paradigm for adding value to existing standards. Interactive (smart) standards/engineering aids require user friendly interfaces that dynamically adapt to the underlying data to provide the best functionality for end users. Integration with existing software packages, such as AutoCAD and ProEngineer, will be a key contributor to the success of this new product.

Benefits of this delivery methodology for purchasers:

  1. Increases the availability and usability of SAE’s standards by providing them in a more usable form for our customers.
  2. Addresses a growing need for computer-based aids that can be installed as stand-alone products or incorporated into existing applications on a variety of operating systems and hardware platforms to answer product design, development, manufacturing, and quality questions when they arise rather than as an after-the-fact impact analysis.

    Technical professionals benefit greatly from easy access to important information such as SAE standards, handbooks and recommended practices. The proposed methodology will make it feasible to offer interactive (smart) standards/engineering aids in various forms.

Demonstration
    This is an executable. Download it to your hard drive, then go into your file manager and double click on the "smrtstd" icon.

    As an example, consider the pilot interactive (smart) standard/engineering aid, SAE J244 (Measurement of Intake Air or Exhaust Gas Flow of Diesel Engines)—Section 6.2 (Calculation of Intake Air Flow). A mathematical model, constructed using TKSolver, is shown.

    The equations from the standard are displayed in mathematical form using Greek characters and mathematical symbols where appropriate. The variables in these equations are concisely summarized in a worksheet including descriptions and unit definitions. This worksheet gives users the flexibility of entering input values for known variables in whatever units they desire, and then TKSolver solves for the unknowns. One can also make across-the-board selection and change of units to SI or U.S. Customary units if he/she so chooses. TKSolver also produces plots of relationships of interest. TKSolver’s ability to “backsolve” problems is especially valuable in the development of interactive standards/engineering aids. With backsolving users can solve problems in any direction, depending what is known or required. In this case, we may need to compute the nozzle diameter resulting in a desired flow rate. TKSolver also supports conditional (if-then-else) and logical (and, not, or) problem solving.

Smart Materials

Background
   Designers always consider the worst-case scenario and, as a result, designs contain large margins of safety, including numerous reinforcements, redundancy, and added mass. This approach demands more natural resources and consumes more energy to produce and maintain. It also requires more effort to predict the circumstances under which the product will be used and abused.

    Trying to anticipate the worst-case scenario has a much more serious and obvious flaw. We are unable to foresee all possible contingencies that can arise. As a result, costly litigation often ensues.

The Technology
   Smart materials incorporate chemical switches or mechanical sensors to improve their performance. They respond to environmental stimuli with particular changes in some variables and are sometimes called responsive materials. Depending on changes in some external conditions, smart or responsive materials change either their properties (mechanical, electrical, appearance), their structure or composition, or their functions. Smart materials can be embedded in systems whose inherent properties can be favorably changed to meet performance needs.